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Brain Nerves

R Putamen

The putamen is a large structure located within the brain. It is involved in a very complex feedback loop that prepares and aids in movement of the limbs. It is closely intertwined with the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus, which are together known as the corpus striatum. Signals are transmitted through these structures to the motor thalamus, brain stem, and motor neocortex, which helps the body with all aspects of physical movement. Lesions on the brain due to Parkinson’s disease can affect the putamen and cause involuntary muscle movements or tremors. Degenerative diseases of the brain, such as Huntington’s disease, can also affect the putamen and cause jerky, unpredictable movements. Although no cure is available for Parkinson’s or Huntington’s disease, certain medications to decrease jerking movements may be prescribed. Disruption in the function of the putamen may also cause restless legs syndrome. This condition causes jerking of the legs as well as a painful urge to move the legs. This disorder is treated with getting enough sleep, eliminating caffeine from the diet, and anti-spasmodic medications.      Source 

 

R Lateral Globus Pallidus

 

 

R Fornix Crura

The crura (posterior pillars) of the fornix are prolonged backward from the body. They are flattened bands, and, at their commencement, are intimately connected with the under surface of the corpus callosum. Diverging from one another, each curves around the posterior end of the thalamus, and passes downward and forward into the temporal horn of lateral ventricle. Here, it lies along the concavity of the hippocampus, on the surface of which some of its fibers are spread out to form the alveus, while the remainder are continued as a narrow white band, the fimbria of hippocampus, which is prolonged into the uncus of the parahippocampal gyrus.

 

R Lateral Ventricle

The right and left lateral ventricles are structures within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery fluid that provides cushioning for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients and remove waste. Along with the structures known as the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle, the lateral ventricles are part of the body’s ventricular system. The ventricular system acts as a continuation of the central canal of the spinal cord, a similar structure that contains cerebrospinal fluid and runs the length of the neck and trunk. The separate sections of the ventricular system are connected through small holes known as foramina. The lateral and third ventricles connect through the right and left interventricular foramina, while the third and fourth ventricles connect through a foramen known as the cerebral aqueduct. Other foramina that connect to specific ventricles exist but are not considered part of the ventricular system.       Source

 

R Fornix Columns

The columns of fornix are known as anterior pillars and fornicolumns. These exist within the brain. The columns begin on either side of the brain, and separately are known as the crus of the fornix. When the fibers come together to form the fornix, it is called the body of the fornix. In the brain, the columns of fornix travel downward in an arch, falling in front of the interventricular foramen (an opening at the center of the brain) and going behind the anterior commissure (a bundle of fibers that connects the brain’s halves). From there, the columns of fornix travel the lateral wall of the third ventricle — a fluid-filled cavity in the brain — passing through gray matter, a type of tissue found in the outer portions of the brain. This continues to the base of the brain, where the columns end at the corpus mammillare, or mammillary bodies, which help with recall and the role of smell in memory. The columns of fornix are C-shaped. The columns are created from columns of fibers called axons. These axons are found in the brain and can carry signals throughout. Signals created by the hippocampus (part of the brain involved in memory) are sent to the septal nuclei (involved in pleasure and memory formation) by the fornix, as well as to the mammillary bodies.       Source 

 

R Interventricular Foramen (also known as foramina of Monro)

These are channels that connect the paired lateral ventricles with the third ventricle at the midline of the brain. As channels, they allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain’s ventricular system. The interventricular foramina connect the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. This allows cerebrospinal fluid produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain’s ventricular system. The walls of the interventricular foramina contain choroid plexus, a specialized structure that produces cerebrospinal fluid. The choroid plexus of the third ventricles continues through the foramina into the lateral ventricles.

 

R Superior Colliculus

The superior colliculus is made up of several layers of cells, which anatomists have divided into what are called superficial and deep layers. The superficial layers seem to primarily receive visual information from the retina and the visual cortex, while the deep layers receive information from the auditory, visual, and somatosensory systems. Although the complete scope of functions that can be attributed to the superior colliculi has not been fully delineated, the superior colliculi are understood to be important to directing behavioral responses toward stimuli in the environment. In other words, the superior colliculus seems to be able to receive information from the environment and then use that information to initiate a behavioral response appropriate to the current environmental context. For example, if you were sitting in the stands at a baseball game and someone hit a home run, you would follow the ball with your head and eyes. This behavioral response to an environmental stimulus would involve the superior colliculi. In fact, eye and head movements like this are the most-studied function of the superior colliculus.       Source

 

R Inferior Colliculus

The inferior colliculus is a part of the midbrain that serves as a main auditory (sound) center for the body. It acts as the channel for almost all auditory signals in the human body. Its primary roles are signal integration, frequency recognition, and pitch discrimination. It also processes sensory signals from the superior colliculi, located above it. The inferior colliculus is made up of two lobes, which process sound signals from both ears. It is sub-divided into the external cortex, lateral cortex, and central cortex. It also performs the function of integrating multiple audio signals that help to filter out sounds from vocalizing, breathing, and chewing activities. This part of the brain shows a comparatively higher rate of metabolic activity than several other areas of the brain. Metabolic activity is the name given to the chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.       Source

 

R Fourth Ventricle

Inside the brain, there are four cavities, called ventricles. The right and left lateral ventricles and the third and fourth ventricles compose the ventricular system. The fourth ventricle contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It has a diamond shape and is located in the upper portion of the medulla oblongata. Specifically, it spans from the Obex (The point in the medulla where ventricle narrows to become the central canal of the spinal cord) — an area in the medulla oblongata, located in the brainstem — to the cerebral aqueduct — a canal-like structure in the upper part of the brainstem that connects the fourth ventricle to the third. The main function of this ventricle is to protect the human brain from trauma (via a cushioning effect) and to help form the central canal, which runs the length of the spinal cord.      Source 

  

R Medial Globus Pallidus

Is one of the output nuclei of the basal ganglia. The medial globus pallidus acts to tonically inhibit the ventral lateral nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus of the thalamus. As these two nuclei are needed for movement planning, this inhibition restricts movement initiation and prevents unwanted movements.

 

R Third Ventricle

The third ventricle is one of the four ventricles in the brain that communicate with one another. As with the other ventricles of the brain, it is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which helps to protect the brain from injury and transport nutrients and waste. The third ventricle is a narrow cavity that is located between the two halves of the brain. The third ventricle sends messages to and receives messages from the lateral ventricles, which are located in front of the third ventricle, and the aqueduct of the midbrain, which is located directly behind the third ventricle. The hypothalamus and thalamus are located on the sides of the third ventricle.       Source

 

R Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is a section of the brain responsible for the production of many of the body’s essential hormones, chemical substances that help control different cells and organs. The hormones from the hypothalamus govern physiologic functions such as temperature regulation, thirst, hunger, sleep, mood, sex drive, and the release of other hormones within the body. This area of the brain houses the pituitary gland and other glands in the body. Although this portion of the brain is small in size, it is involved in many necessary processes of the body including behavioral, autonomic (involuntary or unconscious), and endocrine functions, such as metabolism and growth and development. The hypothalamus’ primary function is homeostasis, which is to maintain the body’s status quo system-wide. Hypothalamic hormones include thyrotropin-releasing, gonadotropin-releasing, growth hormone-releasing, corticotrophin-releasing, somatostatin, and dopamine hormones. These hormones release into the blood via the capillaries (small vessels) and travel to the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus uses a set-point to regulate the body’s systems, including electrolyte and fluid balance, body temperature, blood pressure, and body weight. It receives inputs from the body, then makes the proper changes if anything differentiates from this set-point. The set-point can temporarily change, but remains remarkably fixed from day to day.       Source 

 

R Mammillary Body

The mammillary bodies form part of the hypothalamus and have a role in memory, although their exact role is yet to be established.       Source 

 

R Hippocampus

The hippocampus is a small organ located within the brain’s medial temporal lobe and forms an important part of the limbic system, the region that regulates emotions. The hippocampus is associated mainly with memory, in particular long-term memory. The organ also plays an important role in spatial navigation. Damage to the hippocampus can lead to loss of memory and difficulty in establishing new memories. In Alzheimer’s disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to be affected, leading to the confusion and loss of memory so commonly seen in the early stages of the disease.       Source 

 

R Gracile Tubercle

Located in the medulla oblongata, the gracile nucleus is one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body (legs and trunk). The gracile nucleus and fasciculus carry epicritic, kinesthetic, and conscious proprioceptive information from the lower part of the body (below the level of T6 in the spinal cord). The counterpart to the gracile nucleus and fasciculus is the cuneate nucleus and fasciculus, which carries the same type of information, but from the upper body (above T6, excepting the face and ear – the information from the face and ear is carried by the principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve).

 

R Cuneate

This is a tract of nerves in the spinal cord that primarily transmits information from the arms. It is part of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. The fasciculus cuneatus transmits fine touch, fine pressure, vibration, and proprioception information from spinal nerves located in dermatomes C1 through T6.

 

R Olive

Research is still being done on the olivary bodies. Sometimes called “olives,” olivary bodies are a pair of distinct, oval structures, situated one on each side of the anterior (front) surface of the medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata is the lower part of the brain stem. The brain stem assists in the management of certain senses and the regulation of the cardiac (heart) and respiratory centers. It also controls import aspects of sleep. The medulla oblongata contains the respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers, which control the size of blood vessels. It deals with involuntary functions such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate. The olivary body works specifically in the areas of motor (movement) learning function, as well as auditory (sound) perception. The olivary bodies are composed of nerve tissue and measure about 1.25 cm in length. The inferior olivary nucleus is the part of the olivary body that assists in cerebellar motor learning and functioning. The cerebellum is located in the lower, back part of the brain. The superior olivary nucleus is the part of the olivary body that belongs to the auditory system and assists with sound perception.       Source 

 

R Medulla Oblongata

The medulla oblongata is located in the brain stem, anterior to (in front of) the cerebellum. This is a cone-shaped, neuronal (nerve cell) mass in the hindbrain, which controls many autonomic (involuntary) functions. This section of the brain helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus, which is in the brain, from the body. The main function of the thalamus is to process information to and from the spinal cord and the cerebellum. The medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the medulla. The medulla oblongata receives its blood supply from several arteries, including the anterior spinal artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and the vertebral artery’s direct branches.

 

L Putamen

The putamen is a large structure located within the brain. It is involved in a very complex feedback loop that prepares and aids in movement of the limbs. It is closely intertwined with the caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and globus pallidus, which are together known as the corpus striatum. Signals are transmitted through these structures to the motor thalamus, brain stem, and motor neocortex, which helps the body with all aspects of physical movement. Lesions on the brain due to Parkinson’s disease can affect the putamen and cause involuntary muscle movements or tremors. Degenerative diseases of the brain, such as Huntington’s disease, can also affect the putamen and cause jerky, unpredictable movements. Although no cure is available for Parkinson’s or Huntington’s disease, certain medications to decrease jerking movements may be prescribed. Disruption in the function of the putamen may also cause restless legs syndrome. This condition causes jerking of the legs as well as a painful urge to move the legs. This disorder is treated with getting enough sleep, eliminating caffeine from the diet, and anti-spasmodic medications.       Source 

R Caudate Nucleus

Each of the brain’s hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus, and both are located centrally and near the basal ganglia. They are also situated near the thalamus, which is deep in the brain, close to the midbrain. Each nucleus features a wide head that tapers into a body and a thin tail. As a whole, each nuclei is curved and often resembles the letter “C” in shape. The caudate nucleus plays a vital role in how the brain learns, specifically the storing and processing of memories. It works as a feedback processor, which means it uses information from past experiences to influence future actions and decisions. This is important to the development and use of language. Specifically, communication skills are thought to be controlled mostly by the left caudate and the thalamus. Some brain specialists suspect the nucleus may play a role in the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). If this is true, it likely occurs because the nucleus is unable to control the transmission of worrying and concerning impulses between the thalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, which alters the impact of this information on actions and decisions.

 

R Dura

In the central nervous system, there are three different layers that cover the spinal cord and brain. These are called the meninges, and their three levels consist of the: pia, arachnoid, and dura mater. Bone is situated above these layers, followed by periosteum (a fibrous membrane that covers bone) and skin. The dura mater is the top layer of the meninges, lying beneath the bone tissue. This material at times opens into sinus cavities (spaces) located around the skull. This is particularly notable with the dural venous sinuses. Here, liquids, like blood and cerebrospinal fluid, drain and collect into the internal jugular vein. Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear liquid that cushions the brain and spinal cord while also transporting nutrients, chemicals, and waste. Dura mater is also the home to meningeal veins. Many types of medical conditions involve the dura mater. The most common come in the form of hematomas. Arterial bleeding can result in an epidural hematoma, which is when blood collects between the dura mater and the skull. If blood collects between the dura and arachnoid mater, a subdural hematoma results. Also, there are some instances where the dura plays a major role in certain types of headaches.      Source 

 

R Amygdaloid Body

The amygdaloid body is also known as the amygdaloid nucleus. This is an oval structure located within the temporal lobe of the human brain. The structure is a small part of the brain and is closely associated with the hypothalamus, cingulated gyrus, and hippocampus. Smelling, motivation, and emotional responses are facilitated by the olfactory and limbic systems, which are partially made up of the amygdaloid body. The amygdaloid body was named for its almond shape. Amydale is the Greek word for “almond,” and eidos is the Greek word for “like.” The amygdala is an important part of the brain, which assists in responses of fear and pleasure. The abnormal working of the amygdaloid body can lead to various clinical conditions including developmental delay, depression, anxiety, and autism.       Source

 

L Amygdaloid Body

The amygdaloid body is also known as the amygdaloid nucleus. This is an oval structure located within the temporal lobe of the human brain. The structure is a small part of the brain and is closely associated with the hypothalamus, cingulated gyrus, and hippocampus. Smelling, motivation, and emotional responses are facilitated by the olfactory and limbic systems, which are partially made up of the amygdaloid body. The amygdaloid body was named for its almond shape. Amydale is the Greek word for “almond,” and eidos is the Greek word for “like.” The amygdala is an important part of the brain, which assists in responses of fear and pleasure. The abnormal working of the amygdaloid body can lead to various clinical conditions including developmental delay, depression, anxiety, and autism.       Source 

 

R Substantia Nigra

The substantia nigra contains two parts: the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr). The SNpc obtains input from the putamen and caudate, and sends information back. The SNpr also obtains input from the putamen and caudate. However, it sends the input outside the basal ganglia to control head and eye movements. The SNpc produces dopamine, which is crucial for movements. The SNpc is the part that degenerates during Parkinson’s disease.       Source  

 

R Pituitary Gland

This is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea, just behind the bridge of your nose. It is attached to the base of your brain by a thin stalk. The pituitary gland is often called the master gland because it controls several other hormone glands in your body, including the thyroid and adrenals, the ovaries and testicles. It secretes hormones from both the front part (anterior) and the back part (posterior) of the gland. Hormones are chemicals that carry messages from one cell to another through your bloodstream. If your pituitary gland is not producing sufficient amounts of one or more hormones this is called hypopituitarism. If on the other hand you are over producing certain hormones, then you would have features due to the over production of the specific hormone concerned.       Source

L Subthalamic Nucleus

 

 

L Caudate Nucleus

Each of the brain’s hemispheres contains a caudate nucleus, and both are located centrally and near the basal ganglia. Each nucleus features a wide head that tapers into a body and a thin tail. As a whole, each nuclei is curved and often resembles the letter “C” in shape. The caudate nucleus plays a vital role in how the brain learns, specifically the storing and processing of memories. It works as a feedback processor, which means it uses information from past experiences to influence future actions and decisions. This is important to the development and use of language. Specifically, communication skills are thought to be controlled mostly by the left caudate and the thalamus. Some brain specialists suspect the nucleus may play a role in the development of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). If this is true, it likely occurs because the nucleus is unable to control the transmission of worrying and concerning impulses between the thalamus and the orbitofrontal cortex, which alters the impact of this information on actions and decisions.       Source  

 

R Cerebellum

This is a major feature of the hindbrain of all vertebrates. Although usually smaller than the cerebrum. The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control, and it may also be involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language as well as in regulating fear and pleasure responses. The human cerebellum does not initiate movement, but contributes to coordination, precision, and accurate timing: it receives input from sensory systems of the spinal cord and from other parts of the brain, and integrates these inputs to fine-tune motor activity. Cerebellar damage produces disorders in fine movement, equilibrium, posture, and motor learning in humans.       Source  

 

R Cerebrum

Your cerebrum is the main part of the brain in humans. Functionally, it obtains information from your surroundings and/or body and then sends that information to a specific part of the cerebrum. The cerebrum interprets the knowledge and decides what must happen next. In short, your cerebrum, although approximately the size of a cantaloupe, holds the instructions for everything you do in your daily life. Lobes and Functions: The cerebrum is divided into four regions called lobes that control senses, thoughts, and movements. The four lobes are the occipital, temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes. Although each lobe has a different task to perform, they all must work together. The occipital lobe, found in the back of your cerebrum, plays a role in processing visual information.There are two temporal lobes, one in each hemisphere, close to where your ears are. It primarily functions in auditory processing. However, it may also be involved in emotion, learning, and pronunciation/learning a new language. If you hear a loud tempo or beat, you may cover your ears, thus blocking the sounds from getting to your temporal lobe.

The frontal lobe allows you to solve a complex task, undergo voluntary movement of your body parts, form complete sentences, and is responsible for your personality traits.

The parietal lobe functions in general sensation and feeling.       Source  

 

L Substantia

The substantia nigra is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and movement. The substantia nigra is an important player in brain function, in particular, in eye movement, motor planning, reward-seeking, learning, and addiction.

 

L Opponens Pollicis

 

 

L Medial Globus Pallidus

The medial globus pallidus is the term used for an output nuclei (a cluster of nerve cells, or neurons) from the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are vast clusters of neurons that are responsible for involuntary movements. The motor cortex transmits information directly to the basal ganglia, at the center of the brain, and the cerebellum, at the brain’s base. The ganglia also sends information back, through the thalamus.       Source

 

L Subthalmic Nucleus

The subthalamic nuclei are small paired structures that are part of the functional basal ganglia. They are located ventral to the thalamus, dorsal to the substantia nigra and medial to the internal capsule.       Source

 

R Thalamus

The thalamus is essentially a relay station for information passing between sensory systems and the cortex, translating the information as it passes. The thalamus is also important with reference to the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The thalamus contains numerous opiate receptors but also receives ascending serotonergic fibres from the raphe dorsalis. It is thought that the thalamus contributes to obsessive compulsive disorder because dysfunction of the caudate nucleus causes excessive signalling between the thalamus and orbitofrontal cortex, leading to distortions in decision-making processes with regard to satiation. The development of Korsakoff’s syndrome is also partly due to thalamic lesions. Modification of thalamic activity by acupuncture is thought to affect its processing of noxious stimuli. is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.       Source 

 

R Corpus Callosum

The corpus callosum is a thick band of nerve fibers that divides the cerebral cortex lobes into left and right hemispheres. It connects the left and right sides of the brain allowing for communication between both hemispheres. The corpus callosum transfers motor, sensory, and cognitive information between the brain hemispheres. The corpus callosum is the largest fiber bundle in the brain, containing nearly 200 million axons. It is composed of white matter fiber tracts known as commissural fibers. It is involved in several functions of the body including Communication Between Brain Hemispheres, Eye Movement and Vision, Maintaining the Balance of Arousal and Attention and Tactile Localization. The corpus callosum plays an important role in vision by combining the separate halves of our visual field, which process images separately in each hemisphere. It also allows us to identify the objects we see by connecting the visual cortex with the language centers of the brain. In addition, the corpus callosum transfers tactile information (processed in the parietal lobes) between the brain hemispheres to enable us to locate touch. However, there is a condition named “Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)” AgCC is a condition in which an individual is born with a partial corpus callosum or no corpus callosum at all. The corpus callosum typically develops between 12 to 20 weeks and continues to experience structural changes even into adulthood. AgCC can be caused by a number of factors including chromosome mutations, genetic inheritance, prenatal infections, and other causes that are unknown. Individuals with AgCC may experience cognitive and communication developmental delays. They may have difficulty understanding language and social cues. Other potential problems include vision impairment, lack of movement coordination, hearing problems, low muscle tone, distorted head or facial features, spasms, and seizures. How are people born without a corpus callosum able to function? How are both hemispheres of their brain able to communicate? Researchers have discovered that the resting state brain activity in both those with healthy brains and those with AgCC look essentially the same. This indicates that the brain compensates for the missing corpus callosum by rewiring itself and establishing new nerve connections between the brain hemispheres. The actual process involved in establishing this communication is still unknown.       Source  

 

 L Thalamus

The thalamus is essentially a relay station for information passing between sensory systems and the cortex, translating the information as it passes. The thalamus is also important with reference to the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. The thalamus contains numerous opiate receptors but also receives ascending serotonergic fibres from the raphe dorsalis. It is thought that the thalamus contributes to obsessive compulsive disorder because dysfunction of the caudate nucleus causes excessive signalling between the thalamus and orbitofrontal cortex, leading to distortions in decision-making processes with regard to satiation. The development of Korsakoff’s syndrome is also partly due to thalamic lesions. Modification of thalamic activity by acupuncture is thought to affect its processing of noxious stimuli. is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.       Source 

 

L Fornix Body

The body of fornix joins the hippocampus and mammillary bodies, structures in the base of the brain that are involved in memory formation and recall. It is part of the limbic system. The body of fornix is just one segment of four components that comprise the fornix of the brain. The other elements are the fimbria, crus, and column. The fornix is C-shaped and is the main structure of the hippocampal formation. It is a bunch of nerve cell fibers protruding from the under surface of the corpus callosum, the nerve fibers that join the two halves of the brain. From there, the body of fornix extends to the interventricular foramen, an opening at the center of the brain. Next to the foramen, the body of fornix forms the anterior (front) columns of the fornix in the lower borders of the septum pellucidum, which is a membrane located at the midline of the brain. In CT imaging studies, the body of fornix is seen hanging from the slender, superior (upper) part of the septum pellucidum. It is situated above the tela choroidea (connective tissue) and ependymal roof (membrane lining) of the third ventricle, a fluid-filled cavity in the brain.

 

L Fornix Crura

The crura (posterior pillars) of the fornix are prolonged backward from the body. They are flattened bands, and, at their commencement, are intimately connected with the under surface of the corpus callosum. Diverging from one another, each curves around the posterior end of the thalamus, and passes downward and forward into the temporal horn of lateral ventricle. Here, it lies along the concavity of the hippocampus, on the surface of which some of its fibers are spread out to form the alveus, while the remainder are continued as a narrow white band, the fimbria of hippocampus, which is prolonged into the uncus of the parahippocampal gyrus.

 

L Mammillary Body

The mammillary bodies form part of the hypothalamus and have a role in memory, although their exact role is yet to be established.       Source 

 

L Lateral Ventricle

The right and left lateral ventricles are structures within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid, a clear, watery fluid that provides cushioning for the brain while also helping to circulate nutrients and remove waste. Along with the structures known as the third ventricle and the fourth ventricle, the lateral ventricles are part of the body’s ventricular system. The ventricular system acts as a continuation of the central canal of the spinal cord, a similar structure that contains cerebrospinal fluid and runs the length of the neck and trunk. The separate sections of the ventricular system are connected through small holes known as foramina. The lateral and third ventricles connect through the right and left interventricular foramina, while the third and fourth ventricles connect through a foramen known as the cerebral aqueduct. Other foramina that connect to specific ventricles exist but are not considered part of the ventricular system.       Source

 

L Interventricular Foramen (also known as foramina of Monro)

These are channels that connect the paired lateral ventricles with the third ventricle at the midline of the brain. As channels, they allow cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain’s ventricular system. The interventricular foramina connect the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. This allows cerebrospinal fluid produced in the lateral ventricles to reach the third ventricle and then the rest of the brain’s ventricular system. The walls of the interventricular foramina contain choroid plexus, a specialized structure that produces cerebrospinal fluid. The choroid plexus of the third ventricles continues through the foramina into the lateral ventricles.

 

L Fornix Columns

The columns of fornix are known as anterior pillars and fornicolumns. These exist within the brain. The columns begin on either side of the brain, and separately are known as the crus of the fornix. When the fibers come together to form the fornix, it is called the body of the fornix. In the brain, the columns of fornix travel downward in an arch, falling in front of the interventricular foramen (an opening at the center of the brain) and going behind the anterior commissure (a bundle of fibers that connects the brain’s halves). From there, the columns of fornix travel the lateral wall of the third ventricle — a fluid-filled cavity in the brain — passing through gray matter, a type of tissue found in the outer portions of the brain. This continues to the base of the brain, where the columns end at the corpus mammillare, or mammillary bodies, which help with recall and the role of smell in memory. The columns of fornix are C-shaped. The columns are created from columns of fibers called axons. These axons are found in the brain and can carry signals throughout. Signals created by the hippocampus (part of the brain involved in memory) are sent to the septal nuclei (involved in pleasure and memory formation) by the fornix, as well as to the mammillary bodies.       Source 

 

R Pineal Gland

The pineal gland is a small, pea-shaped gland in the brain. Its function isn’t fully understood. Researchers do know that it produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin. Melatonin is best known for the role it plays in regulating sleep patterns. Sleep patterns are also called circadian rhythms.      Source

 

L Inferior Colliculus

The inferior colliculus is a part of the midbrain that serves as a main auditory (sound) center for the body. It acts as the channel for almost all auditory signals in the human body. Its primary roles are signal integration, frequency recognition, and pitch discrimination. It also processes sensory signals from the superior colliculi, located above it. The inferior colliculus is made up of two lobes, which process sound signals from both ears. It is sub-divided into the external cortex, lateral cortex, and central cortex. It also performs the function of integrating multiple audio signals that help to filter out sounds from vocalizing, breathing, and chewing activities. This part of the brain shows a comparatively higher rate of metabolic activity than several other areas of the brain. Metabolic activity is the name given to the chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.       Source  

 

L Superior Colliculus

The superior colliculus is made up of several layers of cells, which anatomists have divided into what are called superficial and deep layers. The superficial layers seem to primarily receive visual information from the retina and the visual cortex, while the deep layers receive information from the auditory, visual, and somatosensory systems. Although the complete scope of functions that can be attributed to the superior colliculi has not been fully delineated, the superior colliculi are understood to be important to directing behavioral responses toward stimuli in the environment. In other words, the superior colliculus seems to be able to receive information from the environment and then use that information to initiate a behavioral response appropriate to the current environmental context. For example, if you were sitting in the stands at a baseball game and someone hit a home run, you would follow the ball with your head and eyes. This behavioral response to an environmental stimulus would involve the superior colliculi. In fact, eye and head movements like this are the most-studied function of the superior colliculus.       Source 

 

R Cerebral Aqueduct

The structure indicated by the arrow is the cerebral aqueduct. The cerebral aqueduct (of Sylvius) forms part of the ventricular system of the brain which connects the third ventricle located in the diencephalon, to the fourth ventricle located in the brainstem. The ventricular system of the brain is made up of four ventricles the 2 lateral ventricles (found in the telencephalon), The Third  ventricle (found in the diencephalon), the Fourth ventricle (found in the rhombencephalon) and The interventricular foramen (foramen of Monro) connects the lateral ventricles to the third ventricle. The cerebral aqueduct connects the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. If the cerebral aqueduct becomes obstructed, a condition called obstructive hydrocephalus may develop, resulting in the dilatation of the lateral and third ventricles.       Source

 

R Pons

The Pons serves as a message station between several areas of the brain. It helps relay messages from the cortex and the cerebellum. Without the pons, the brain would not be able to function because messages would not be able to be transmitted, or passed along. It also plays a key role in sleep and dreaming, where REM sleep, or the sleeping state where dreaming is most likely to occur, has been proven to originate in the pons. The pons is a portion of the brain stem, located above the medulla oblongata and below the midbrain. Although it is small, at approximately 2.5 centimeters long, it serves several important functions. It is a bridge between various parts of the nervous system, including the cerebellum and cerebrum, which are both parts of the brain. There are many important nerves that originate in the pons. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for feeling in the face. I also controls the muscles that are responsible for biting, chewing, and swallowing. The abducens nerve allows the eyes to look from side to side. The facial nerve controls facial expressions, and the vestibulocochlear nerve allows sound to move from the ear to the brain. All of these nerves start within the pons. As part of the brain stem, the pons also impacts several automatic functions necessary for life. A section of the lower pons stimulates and controls the intensity of breathing, and a section of the upper pons decreases the depth and frequency of breaths.       Source 

 

L Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus, which controls the pituitary by sending messages, is situated immediately above the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus influences the functions of temperature regulation, food intake, thirst and water intake, sleep and wake patterns, emotional behaviour and memory.

 

L Hippocampus

The hippocampus is a small organ located within the brain’s medial temporal lobe and forms an important part of the limbic system, the region that regulates emotions. The hippocampus is associated mainly with memory, in particular long-term memory. The organ also plays an important role in spatial navigation. Damage to the hippocampus can lead to loss of memory and difficulty in establishing new memories. In Alzheimer’s disease, the hippocampus is one of the first regions of the brain to be affected, leading to the confusion and loss of memory so commonly seen in the early stages of the disease.      Source

 

L Olive

Research is still being done on the olivary bodies. Sometimes called “olives,” olivary bodies are a pair of distinct, oval structures, situated one on each side of the anterior (front) surface of the medulla oblongata. The medulla oblongata is the lower part of the brain stem. The brain stem assists in the management of certain senses and the regulation of the cardiac (heart) and respiratory centers. It also controls import aspects of sleep. The medulla oblongata contains the respiratory, vomiting, and vasomotor centers, which control the size of blood vessels. It deals with involuntary functions such as breathing, blood pressure, and heart rate. The olivary body works specifically in the areas of motor (movement) learning function, as well as auditory (sound) perception. The olivary bodies are composed of nerve tissue and measure about 1.25 cm in length. The inferior olivary nucleus is the part of the olivary body that assists in cerebellar motor learning and functioning. The cerebellum is located in the lower, back part of the brain. The superior olivary nucleus is the part of the olivary body that belongs to the auditory system and assists with sound perception.      Source  

 

L Cuneate

This is a tract of nerves in the spinal cord that primarily transmits information from the arms. It is part of the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. The fasciculus cuneatus transmits fine touch, fine pressure, vibration, and proprioception information from spinal nerves located in dermatomes C1 through T6.

 

R Brain Stem Center

The brainstem provides the main motor and sensory innervation to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Of the twelve pairs of cranial nerves, ten pairs come from the brainstem. Though small, this is an extremely important part of the brain as the nerve connections of the motor and sensory systems from the main part of the brain to the rest of the body pass through the brainstem. This includes the corticospinal tract (motor), the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (fine touch, vibration sensation, and proprioception), and the spinothalamic tract (pain, temperature, itch, and crude touch). The brainstem also plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function. It also regulates the central nervous system, and is pivotal in maintaining consciousness and regulating the sleep cycle. The brainstem has many basic functions including heart rate, breathing, sleeping, and eating.

 

R Pyramid

The medullary pyramids are paired white matter structures of the brainstem’s medulla oblongata that contain motor fibers of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts – known together as the pyramidal tracts. The lower limit of the pyramids is marked when the fibers cross (decussate). The two pyramids contain the motor fibers that pass from the brain to the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. These are the corticobulbar and corticospinal fibers that make up the pyramidal tracts. The medullary pyramids contain motor fibers that are known as the corticobulbar and corticospinal tracts. The corticospinal tracts are on the anterior surface of the pyramids. These tracts transport motor signals that originated in the precentral gyrus and travelled through the internal capsule to the medulla oblongata and pyramids. Extrapyramidal tracts are those motor tracts that do not traverse the medullary pyramids.

 

L Medulla Oblongata

The medulla oblongata is located in the brain stem, anterior to (in front of) the cerebellum. This is a cone-shaped, neuronal (nerve cell) mass in the hindbrain, which controls many autonomic (involuntary) functions. This section of the brain helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus, which is in the brain, from the body. The main function of the thalamus is to process information to and from the spinal cord and the cerebellum. The medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing, heart and blood vessel function, digestion, sneezing, and swallowing. This part of the brain is a center for respiration and circulation. Sensory and motor neurons (nerve cells) from the forebrain and midbrain travel through the medulla. The medulla oblongata receives its blood supply from several arteries, including the anterior spinal artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and the vertebral artery’s direct branches.