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Organs Liver (Vessels)

Left Hepatic Vein

Hepatic veins are blood vessels which transport the liver’s deoxygenated blood and blood which has been filtered by the liver (this is blood from the pancreas, colon, small intestine, and stomach) to the inferior vena cava. The hepatic veins originate in the liver lobule’s central vein. Hepatic veins are unusual in that they do not have valves. The left hepatic vein runs partially in the fissure for the ligamentum teres and the left hepatic fissure. It drains segments II, III, IVa and IVb. It is always located anterior to the left portal vein. The vertical plane of the left hepatic vein separates the segments IVa and IVb from segments II and III.      Source


Umbilical Vein (Remnant)

The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing fetus. The umbilical vein provides convenient access to the central circulation of a neonate for restoration of blood volume and for administration of glucose and drugs. The unpaired umbilical vein carries oxygen and nutrient rich blood derived from fetal-maternal blood exchange at the chorionic villi. More than two-thirds of fetal hepatic circulation is via the main portal vein, while the remainder is shunted from the left portal vein via the ductus venosus to the inferior vena cava, eventually being delivered to the fetal right atrium.


Hepatic Duct

The duct formed by the junction of the right hepatic duct (which drains bile from the right half of the liver) and the left hepatic duct (which drains bile from the left half of the liver). The common hepatic duct then joins the cystic duct coming from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct.      Source


Inferior Vena Cava

The inferior vena cava is the largest vein in the human body. It collects blood from veins serving the tissues inferior to the heart and returns this blood to the right atrium of the heart. Although the vena cava is very large in diameter, its walls are incredibly thin due to the low pressure exerted by venous blood. The inferior vena cava forms at the superior end of the pelvic cavity when the common iliac veins unite to form a larger vein. From the pelvis, the inferior vena cava ascends through the posterior abdominal body wall just to the right of the vertebral column. Along its way through the abdomen, blood from the internal organs joins the inferior vena cava through a series of large veins, including the gonadal, renal, suprarenal and inferior phrenic veins. The hepatic vein provides blood from the digestive organs of the abdomen after it has passed through the hepatic portal system in the liver. Blood from the tissues of the lower back, including the spinal cord and muscles of the back, enters the vena cava through the lumbar veins. Many smaller veins also provide blood to the vena cava from the tissues of the abdominal body wall. Upon reaching the heart, the inferior vena cava connects to the right atrium on its posterior side, inferior to the connection of the superior vena cava. The inferior vena cava and its tributaries drain blood from the feet, legs, thighs, pelvis and abdomen and deliver this blood to the heart. Many one-way venous valves help to move blood through the veins of the lower extremities against the pull of gravity. Blood passing through the veins is under very little pressure and so must be pumped toward the heart by the contraction of skeletal muscles in the legs and by pressure in the abdomen caused by breathing. Venous valves help to trap blood between muscle contractions or breaths and prevent it from being pulled back down towards the feet by gravity.       Source


Right Hepatic Vein

The right hepatic vein runs in the right hepatic fissure and drains segments V, VI, VII and VIII. The vertical plane of the right hepatic vein separates the segments VI and VII (posterior to the plane) from segments V and VIII (anterior to this plane).


Meddle Hepatic Vein

The middle hepatic vein runs at the middle hepatic fissure and drains segments IVa, IVb, V and VIII. The vertical plane of the middle hepatic vein separates the segments V and VIII (posterolateral to this plane) from segments IVa and IVb (anteromedial to this plane).


Portal Vein

This is the main vessel in the portal venous system and drains blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen to the liver. Portal vein, large vein through which oxygen-depleted blood from the stomach, the intestines, the spleen, the gallbladder, and the pancreas flows to the liver. The principal tributaries to the portal vein are the lienal vein, with blood from the stomach, the greater omentum (a curtain of membrane and fat that hangs down over the intestines), the pancreas, the large intestine, and the spleen; the superior mesenteric vein, with blood from the small intestine and part of the large intestine; the pyloric veins, with blood from the stomach; and the cystic veins, with blood from the gallbladder. In the liver the blood from the portal vein flows through a network of microscopic vessels called sinusoids in which the blood is relieved of worn-out red cells, bacteria, and other debris and in which nutrients are added to the blood or removed from it for storage. The blood leaves the liver by way of the hepatic veins.      Source


Hepatic Artery

The common hepatic artery is one of the final branches of the celiac artery. It supplies oxygen-rich blood to the liver, pylorus, pancreas, and duodenum. It runs on the right inside the lesser sac, a cavity near the middle of the abdomen, and enters the lesser omentum, a folded membrane that attaches the stomach to the liver. The artery then passes upward toward the porta hepatis, a deep groove in the back of the liver through which many neurovascular structures enter and leave the liver. The common hepatic artery splits into the proper hepatic artery and the gastroduodenal artery. The proper hepatic artery enters the porta hepatis where it splits into the left and right hepatic arteries that supply the liver.      Source