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Organ Teeth (Cross Section)


Dentin is a calcified (calcium carbonate or some other insoluble calcium compounds) bodily tissue that is protected by the tooth’s enamel. 70% of dentin is composed of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 20% is organic material and 10% is water. Everyone’s dentin is shade of yellow but the intensity varies per person which is why after teeth whitening treatments some never achieve the desired level of whiteness. Dentin is a bone like structure however is soft in comparison to actual bone. The tooth is composed primary, secondary, and tertiary dentin. The outer layer is the primary, the secondary layer of dentin is produced after the root of the tooth has been fully developed and the tertiary dentin is a response to a stimulus. All three types of dentin are vital to the longevity of the tooth.      Source



The gingiva (or gums) is the tissue that surrounds and protects the teeth and underlying bone. The gingiva is attached to the tooth, forming a seal that protects the underlying bone and helps provide a barrier against infection. Good oral hygiene keeps this seal intact, while bad oral hygiene can result in damage to the gingiva, leading to gingivitis. Bad oral hygiene leads to the buildup of bacterial plaques, which cause inflammation and onset of gingivitis. If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontitis, a condition where the seal between the gingiva and the tooth becomes loose, which may lead to infection and tooth breakdown. The gingiva is composed of an outer epithelium and an inner network of connective tissue. This outer epithelial layer is keratinized, forming a protective layer around the tooth. Contained within the inner gingival connective tissue are gingival fibroblasts, which play a crucial role in tissue repair and the inflammatory response.     Source



The nervous system is a complex collection of nerves and specialized cells known as neurons that transmit signals between different parts of the body. It is essentially the body’s electrical wiring. A nerve provides a common pathway for the electrochemical nerve impulses that are transmitted along each of the axons to peripheral organs.    Source


Lateral Canal

In the tooth, a channel leading from the root pulp laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue, may be found anywhere in the tooth root but is more common in the apical third of the root.


Periodontal Ligament

The periodontal ligament is the fibrous connective tissue structure, with neural and vascular components, that joins the cementum covering the root to the alveolar bone. The periodontal ligament serves primarily a supportive function by attaching the tooth to the surrounding alveolar bone proper.  This function is mediated primarily by the principal fibers of the periodontal ligament that form a strong fibrous union between the root cementum and the bone.  The periodontal ligament also serves as a shock-absorber by mechanisms that provide resistance to light as well as heavy forces.  Light forces are cushioned by intravascular fluid that is forced out of the blood vessels.  Moderate forces are also absorbed by extravascular tissue fluid that is forced out of the periodontal ligament space into the adjacent marrow spaces.  The heavier forces are taken up by the principal fibers.  The periodontal ligament also serves a major remodeling function by providing cells that are able to form as well as resorb all the tissues that make up the attachment apparatus, i.e. bone, cementum and the periodontal ligament  Undifferentiated ectomesenchymal cells, located around blood vessels, can differentiate into the specialized cells that form bone (osteoblasts), cementum (cementoblasts), and connective tissue fibers (fibroblasts). Bone- and tooth-resorbing cells (osteoclasts and odontoclasts) are generally multinucleated cells derived from blood-borne macrophages.       Source



The enamel on your teeth is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance in your body. It covers the outer layer of each tooth and it is the most visible part of the tooth. The enamel is made up mostly of minerals, primarily hydroxyapatite. The color can vary from light yellow to a grayish white, since it is semi translucent, it is only partially responsible for the color of your teeth. Enamel plays a very important role in protecting your teeth from decay, so it is important to do everything that you can to prevent your enamel from eroding. It forms a strong barrier that protects the inner layers of your teeth from the effects of acids and plaque, it also protects the sensitive inner layers of your teeth from foods and beverages that are very hot or very cold. If your enamel is destroyed, your body does not make more to replace it. Unlike other parts of your body – like your bones, for instance – enamel does not contain any living cells, so it cannot regenerate. You can protect your enamel by avoiding foods that are known to cause a lot of damage. Sugary foods and acidic fruits and beverages are among the most damaging to your tooth enamel. When those substances stick to your teeth and interact with bacteria in your mouth, lactic acid is produced, which can damage your enamel. Avoid these foods when you can, and if you do consume them, remember to brush thoroughly afterward. Very hard foods, like hard candy or ice cubes, can also damage your enamel by causing it to crack or chip, so these foods should also be avoided. If you do indulge in hard candy, suck on it but don’t bite down on it.     Source



Tooth pulp is literally the most vital part of the tooth. The pulp originates in the center of the tooth, underneath the enamel layer and dentin layer, in the pulp chamber. The shape of a pulp chamber varies based on the size of the tooth itself. The chamber is individualized for each individual tooth. Tooth pulp is made up of living items such as blood vessels, connective tissue, and large nerves. The pulp, also commonly referred to as the nerve, branches out and continues down each root through the canals of the tooth and stops just shy of the apex, or tip of the tooth. The pulp has several important functions. Although the primary function of tooth pulp is the formation of dentin, it has three other functions as well. The functions of tooth pulp include, Sensory Function, Formation of Dentine, and nourishment. Sensory Function – Pain from trauma to the dentin and/or pulp, differences in temperature, and pressure are caused by stimulation of the pulp. Formation of Dentin – The pulp is responsible for the formation of dentin. In response to trauma, the pulp forms secondary dentin, also known as reparative dentin. Nourishment – The pulp contains blood vessels that help to prevent the tooth from becoming brittle by keeping it moisturized and nourished.



Cementum is the calcified or mineralized tissue layer covering the root of the tooth which sits inside the gum socket. The tooth is held in place in the jaw by four periodontal tissues including Alveolar Bone/ the jaw Bone, the periodontal ligament, gingivae/gums, and cementum. The main function of cementum is to provide attachment to the collagen fibres present in the periodontal ligament. This helps maintain the integrity of the root and its position in the gum and bone. Cementum is also deeply involved in the repair and regeneration of teeth.      Source


Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are key components of the systemic and pulmonary circulatory systems that distribute blood throughout the body. There are three major types of blood vessels: arteries that carry blood away from the heart, branching into smaller arterioles throughout the body and eventually forming the capillary network. The latter facilitates efficient chemical exchange between tissue and blood. Capillaries in turn merge into venules, then into larger veins responsible for returning the blood to the heart.      Source