385 208-9200 info@innergydev.com

Skeleton Skull

R Parietal Bone

The parietal bones are two large cranial bones that make up the upper back part of the skull. when joined together at a fibrous joint, form the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is roughly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. One parietal bone is located on each side of the skull (Left and Right) just behind the frontal bone. It is shaped like a curved plate and has four borders. Together, the parietal bones form the bulging sides and roof of the cranium. They are fused in the middle along the sagittal suture, and they meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture. There is a gap through the parietal bone that serves as a passage way for blood vessesl and nerves called parietal foramen.       Source

 

L Parietal Bone

The parietal bones are two large cranial bones that make up the upper back part of the skull. when joined together at a fibrous joint, form the sides and roof of the cranium. Each bone is roughly quadrilateral in form, and has two surfaces, four borders, and four angles. One parietal bone is located on each side of the skull (Left and Right) just behind the frontal bone. It is shaped like a curved plate and has four borders. Together, the parietal bones form the bulging sides and roof of the cranium. They are fused in the middle along the sagittal suture, and they meet the frontal bone along the coronal suture. There is a gap through the parietal bone that serves as a passage way for blood vessesl and nerves called parietal foramen.        Source

 

R Incus

The anvil or incus is a bone in the middle ear. The anvil-shaped small bone is one of three ossicles in the middle ear. The incus receives vibrations from the malleus, to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the stapes, medially. The incus is the second of the ossicles, three bones in the middle ear which act to transmit sound. Vibrations in the middle ear are received via the tympanic membrane. The malleus, resting on the membrane, conveys vibrations to the incus. This in turn conveys vibrations to the stapes.

 

Occipital Bone

This is a cranial dermal bone and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull). The occipital bone overlies the occipital lobes of the cerebrum. At the base of the skull in the occipital bone there is a large oval opening called the foramen magnum, which allows the passage of the spinal cord. The occipital bone is at the lower back of the brain.

 

R Malleus

The malleus is a bone situated in the middle ear. It is the first of the three ossicles, and attached to the tympanic membrane. The malleus is one of three ossicles in the middle ear which transmit sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ear. The malleus receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmits this to the incus. The malleus is the outermost and largest of the three small bones in the middle ear, and reaches an average length of about eight millimeters in the typical adult.

 

R Stapes

This is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. The stirrup-shaped small bone is on and transmits these to the oval window, medially. The stapes is the smallest and lightest named bone in the human body. The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear. sound waves enter via the auditory canal, go through the tympanic membrane (eardrum), and then enter the middle ear compartment. There, sound waves vibrate three bones known as the ossicles, which are made up of the malleus, the incus and the stapes. The stapes can be compared to a tuning fork, as it exhibits a horseshoe-like shape.       Source

 

L Lacrimal Bone

The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, the size of the little fingernail and one of the smallest bones in the body. Spanning between the middle of each eye socket, each lacrimal is thin and scalelike and serves as support for the eye. The lacrimal has two surfaces: the nasal surface, which faces the nose, and the orbital surface, which faces the eye socket. The pair of lacrimal bones are two of the fourteen facial bones.       Source

 

R Lacrimal Bone

The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, the size of the little fingernail and one of the smallest bones in the body. Spanning between the middle of each eye socket, each lacrimal is thin and scalelike and serves as support for the eye. The lacrimal has two surfaces: the nasal surface, which faces the nose, and the orbital surface, which faces the eye socket. The pair of lacrimal bones are two of the fourteen facial bones.       Source

 

R Maxillary Sinus

The maxillary sinus is one of the four paranasal sinuses, which are sinuses located near the nose. The maxillary sinus is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. The two maxillary sinuses are located below the cheeks, above the teeth and on the sides of the nose. The maxillary sinus drains into the nose through a hole called the ostia. When the ostia becomes clogged, sinusitis can occur. The ostia of the maxillary sinus often clog because the ostia are located near the top of the maxillary sinus, thus making proper drainage difficult. Maxillary sinusitis or an infection of the maxillary sinus can have the following symptoms: fever, pain or pressure in face near the cheekbones, toothache, and runny nose. Sinusitis is the most common of maxillary sinus illnesses and is usually treated with prescription antibiotics.      Source

 

R Palatine Bone

The palatine bone are two small bones of the skull which together form the rearmost section of the hard palate (roof of the mouth with in the oral cavity). The palatine bones are paired bones named either left or right and they join together along the central plane of the skull. The palatine bones also join with many others bones of the skull and are attached to connective tissure, muscles and tussures of the soft palate and nasal cavity.       Source

 

Ethmoid Bone

This is an unpaired bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain. It is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits. The cubical bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction. The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that make up the orbit of the eye. The ethmoid bone is an anterior cranial bone located between the eyes. It contributes to the medial wall of the orbit, the nasal cavity, and the nasal septum. The ethmoid has three parts: cribriform plate, ethmoidal labyrinth, and perpendicular plate. The ethmoid Joins with 13 bones. two bones of the neurocranium—the frontal, and the sphenoid (at the sphenoidal body and at the sphenoidal conchae). eleven bones of the viscerocranium, two nasal bones, two maxillae, two lacrimals, two palatines, two inferior nasal conchae, and the vomer.

 

Sphenoid Bone

The sphenoid bone is wedged between several other bones in the front of the cranium. It consists of a central part and two wing-like structures that extend sideways toward each side of the skull. This bone helps form the base of the cranium, the sides of the skull, and the floors and sides of the orbits (eye sockets). The sphenoid bone also contains two sphenoidal sinuses, which lie side by side and are separated by a bony septum that projects downward into the nasal cavity.       Source

 

R Temporal Bone

The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. The temporal bones are overlaid by the sides of the head known as the temples and house the structures of the ears. The lower seven cranial nerves and the major vessels to and from the brain traverse the temporal bone. The temporal bone consists of four parts the squamous, mastoid, petrous and tympanic parts. The squamous part of the temporal bone is the outer surface is smooth and convex. The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone. The petrous part of the temporal bone is pyramid-shaped and is wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones. And the tympanic part of the temporal bone is a curved plate of bone lying below the squamous part of the temporal bone, in front of the mastoid process, and surrounding the external part of the ear canal.

 

R Maxillary Bone

The maxilla forms the upper jaw by fusing together two irregularly-shaped bones along the median palatine suture, located at the midline of the roof of the mouth. The maxillary bones on each side join in the middle at the intermaxillary suture, a fused line that is created by the union of the right and left ‘halves’ of the maxilla bone, running down the middle of the upper jaw. The bones help to form the upper jaw, sub-segments of the eye sockets, and the lower sections and sides of the nasal cavity. Additionally, they reduce the heaviness of the skull, help support the back teeth, and help to allow the voice to resonate. Each half of the fused bones contains four processes. These include the zygomatic, frontal, palatine, and alveolar processes of the maxilla. They also contain the infraorbital foramen, an opening in the bone just below the eye sockets, and the maxillary sinus, which helps to protect important facial structures during an accidental trauma. A severe blow to the face can fracture the maxilla, causing the displacement of teeth, loss of feeling in the lips or cheeks, and a retraction of the eyeball. Surgery is required to repair the break, as well as reset the bone and surrounding bones.       Source

 

R Zygomatic Bone

The zygomatic bone (cheekbone or malar bone) is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. It is situated at the upper and lateral part of the face and forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit, and parts of the temporal and infratemporal fossa.

The zygomatic bone is one of two bones (sometimes called malar bones) that are responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes. These bones also help form the lateral walls and floors of the orbits (eye). Each bone has a temporal process, which extends down the back to join the zygomatic process of a temporal bone. Together, these processes form a zygomatic arch.       Source

 

R Nasal Concha

This a nasal concha also called a Turbinate or Turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans. the turbinates divide the nasal airway into 4 groove-like air passages, and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface area of nasal mucosa. As a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, the nasal mucosa cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for the lungs. Turbinates are composed of pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium with a thick, vascular, and erectile glandular tissue layer. The turbinates are located laterally in the nasal cavities, curling medially and downward into the nasal airway. Each pair is composed of one turbinate in either side of the nasal cavity, divided by the septum. The turbinates comprise most of the mucosal tissue of the nose and are required for functional respiration. The turbinates are enriched with airflow pressure and temperature-sensing nerve receptors, allowing for tremendous erectile capabilities of nasal congestion and decongestion, in response to the weather conditions and changing needs of the body.

 

Mandible

The mandible, or lower jaw, is the bone that forms the lower part of the skull, and along with the maxilla (upper jaw), forms the mouth structure. Movement of the lower jaw opens and closes the mouth and also allows for the chewing of food. The lower set of teeth in the mouth is rooted in the lower jaw. Four different muscles connect to the lower jaw to facilitate its movement. These muscles are the masseter, the temporalis, the medial pterygoid, and the lateral pterygoid. Each of these muscles occurs in pairs, with one of each muscle appearing on either side of the skull. The muscles work in combination to pivot the lower jaw up and down and to allow movement of the jaw from side to side. Fractures to this bone may be minor or severe, with more severe fractures requiring the jaw to be wired shut to prevent movement during healing. Other injuries and infections that can affect the lower jaw include tendinitis, infections stemming from tooth decay or other tooth injuries, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD), which causes painful swelling where the mandible meets the cheekbone.       Source

 

Frontal Bone

The bone consists of three portions. These are the squamous part, the orbital part, and the nasal part, making up the bony part of the forehead, part of the bony orbital cavity holding the eye, and part of the bony part of the nose respectively. The squamous part marks the flat and also the biggest part, and the main region of the forehead. The orbital part is the horizontal and second biggest region of the frontal bone. It enters into the formation of the roofs of the orbital and nasal cavities. The nasal, the smallest, part articulates with the nasal bone and the frontal process of the maxilla to form the root of the nose.

 

L Zygomatic Bone

This is a paired bone which articulates with the maxilla, the temporal bone, the sphenoid bone and the frontal bone. It is situated at the upper and lateral part of the face and forms the prominence of the cheek, part of the lateral wall and floor of the orbit, and parts of the temporal and infratemporal fossa. The zygomatic bone is one of two bones (sometimes called malar bones) that are responsible for the prominences of the cheeks below and to the sides of the eyes. These bones also help form the lateral walls and floors of the orbits (eye). Each bone has a temporal process, which extends down the back to join the zygomatic process of a temporal bone. Together, these processes form a zygomatic arch.       Source

 

R Frontal Sinus

The frontal sinuses are situated behind the brow ridges. Sinuses are mucosa-lined airspaces within the bones of the face and skull. Each opens into the anterior part of the corresponding middle nasal meatus of the nose through the frontonasal duct which traverses the anterior part of the labyrinth of the ethmoid. These structures then open into the hiatus semilunaris in the middle meatus. The frontal sinuses are absent at birth, but are generally fairly well developed between the seventh and eighth years, only reaching their full size after puberty. the sinus is an essential part of the immune defense/air filtration carried out by the nose. Nasal and sinal mucosae are ciliated and move mucus to the choanae and finally to the stomach. The thick upper layers of nasal mucus trap bacteria and small particles in tissue abundantly provided with immune cells, antibodies, and antibacterial proteins. The layers beneath are thinner and provide a substrate in which the cilia are able to beat and move the upper layer with its debris through the ostia toward the choanae. Frontal sinus fractures occur from trauma to the part of the frontal bone that overlies the sinus, often from motor vehicle accidents and falls.

 

L Frontal Sinus

The frontal sinuses are situated behind the brow ridges. Sinuses are mucosa-lined airspaces within the bones of the face and skull. Each opens into the anterior part of the corresponding middle nasal meatus of the nose through the frontonasal duct which traverses the anterior part of the labyrinth of the ethmoid. These structures then open into the hiatus semilunaris in the middle meatus. The frontal sinuses are absent at birth, but are generally fairly well developed between the seventh and eighth years, only reaching their full size after puberty. the sinus is an essential part of the immune defense/air filtration carried out by the nose. Nasal and sinal mucosae are ciliated and move mucus to the choanae and finally to the stomach. The thick upper layers of nasal mucus trap bacteria and small particles in tissue abundantly provided with immune cells, antibodies, and antibacterial proteins. The layers beneath are thinner and provide a substrate in which the cilia are able to beat and move the upper layer with its debris through the ostia toward the choanae. Frontal sinus fractures occur from trauma to the part of the frontal bone that overlies the sinus, often from motor vehicle accidents and falls.

 

L Ethmoid Sinus

The ethmoidal sinuses or ethmoidal air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses. They are a variable in both size and number of small cavities in the lateral mass of each of the ethmoid bones and cannot be palpated during an extraoral examination. They are divided into the anterior, middle and posterior groups. The ethmoidal air cells consist of numerous thin-walled cavities situated in the ethmoidal labyrinth and completed by the frontal, maxilla, lacrimal, sphenoidal, and palatine bones. They lie between the upper parts of the nasal cavities and the orbits, and are separated from these cavities by thin bony laminae.

 

L Temporal Bone

The temporal bones are situated at the sides and base of the skull, and lateral to the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. The temporal bones are overlaid by the sides of the head known as the temples and house the structures of the ears. The lower seven cranial nerves and the major vessels to and from the brain traverse the temporal bone. The temporal bone consists of four parts the squamous, mastoid, petrous and tympanic parts. The squamous part of the temporal bone is the outer surface is smooth and convex. The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone. The petrous part of the temporal bone is pyramid-shaped and is wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones. And the tympanic part of the temporal bone is a curved plate of bone lying below the squamous part of the temporal bone, in front of the mastoid process, and surrounding the external part of the ear canal.

 

L Stapes

This is involved in the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear. The stirrup-shaped small bone is on and transmits these to the oval window, medially. The stapes is the smallest and lightest named bone in the human body. The stapes is the third bone of the three ossicles in the middle ear. sound waves enter via the auditory canal, go through the tympanic membrane (eardrum), and then enter the middle ear compartment. There, sound waves vibrate three bones known as the ossicles, which are made up of the malleus, the incus and the stapes. The stapes can be compared to a tuning fork, as it exhibits a horseshoe-like shape.       Source

 

L Incus

The anvil or incus is a bone in the middle ear. The anvil-shaped small bone is one of three ossicles in the middle ear. The incus receives vibrations from the malleus, to which it is connected laterally, and transmits these to the stapes, medially. The incus is the second of the ossicles, three bones in the middle ear which act to transmit sound. Vibrations in the middle ear are received via the tympanic membrane. The malleus, resting on the membrane, conveys vibrations to the incus. This in turn conveys vibrations to the stapes.

 

L Malleus

The malleus is a bone situated in the middle ear. It is the first of the three ossicles, and attached to the tympanic membrane. The malleus is one of three ossicles in the middle ear which transmit sound from the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the inner ear. The malleus receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmits this to the incus. The malleus is the outermost and largest of the three small bones in the middle ear, and reaches an average length of about eight millimeters in the typical adult.

 

L Maxillary Sinus

The maxillary sinus is one of the four paranasal sinuses, which are sinuses located near the nose. The maxillary sinus is the largest of the paranasal sinuses. The two maxillary sinuses are located below the cheeks, above the teeth and on the sides of the nose. The maxillary sinus drains into the nose through a hole called the ostia. When the ostia becomes clogged, sinusitis can occur. The ostia of the maxillary sinus often clog because the ostia are located near the top of the maxillary sinus, thus making proper drainage difficult. Maxillary sinusitis or an infection of the maxillary sinus can have the following symptoms: fever, pain or pressure in face near the cheekbones, toothache, and runny nose. Sinusitis is the most common of maxillary sinus illnesses and is usually treated with prescription antibiotics.       Source

 

R Ethmoidal Sinus

The ethmoidal sinuses or ethmoidal air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses. The ethmoid sinuses are located near the bridge of your nose. Sinuses help to filter, clean, and humidify inspired air. They also keep your head from becoming too heavy. Ultimately, mucus made in the sinuses will drain to the nose.       Source

 

L Sphenoid Sinus

Sinuses are air-filled sacs (empty spaces) on either side of the nasal cavity that filter and clean the air breathed through the nose and lighten the bones of the skull. There are four paired sinuses in the head. The most posterior (farthest toward the back of the head) of these is the sphenoid sinus. The sphenoid sinuses are located in the sphenoid bone near the optic nerve and the pituitary gland on the side of the skull. There are seven bones that form the orbit (eye socket), and the sphenoid is one of these bones. The pituitary gland, which produces many different hormones that control other glands, is housed in the sphenoid bone. It is also housed in the sella turcica. the sinuses are all lined with mucus. The mucus secretions produced in the sinuses are continually being swept into the nose by the hair-like structures on the surface of the respiratory membrane (lung lining tissues). This serves to moisten the air we breathe through our noses. The hollow sinuses also act to lighten the bones of the skull and serve as resonating chambers for speech. Sinuses are susceptible to infection. Sinusitis is inflammation of a sinus caused by a bacterial infection that can follow a viral infection. This causes pus and mucus to accumulate within the sinus. Symptoms can include fever, headache, sinus pain, stuffy nose, and impaired sense of smell.        Source

 

R Sphenoid Sinus

Sinuses are air-filled sacs (empty spaces) on either side of the nasal cavity that filter and clean the air breathed through the nose and lighten the bones of the skull. There are four paired sinuses in the head. The most posterior (farthest toward the back of the head) of these is the sphenoid sinus. The sphenoid sinuses are located in the sphenoid bone near the optic nerve and the pituitary gland on the side of the skull. There are seven bones that form the orbit (eye socket), and the sphenoid is one of these bones. The pituitary gland, which produces many different hormones that control other glands, is housed in the sphenoid bone. It is also housed in the sella turcica. the sinuses are all lined with mucus. The mucus secretions produced in the sinuses are continually being swept into the nose by the hair-like structures on the surface of the respiratory membrane (lung lining tissues). This serves to moisten the air we breathe through our noses. The hollow sinuses also act to lighten the bones of the skull and serve as resonating chambers for speech. Sinuses are susceptible to infection. Sinusitis is inflammation of a sinus caused by a bacterial infection that can follow a viral infection. This causes pus and mucus to accumulate within the sinus. Symptoms can include fever, headache, sinus pain, stuffy nose, and impaired sense of smell.        Source

 

L Nasal Conch

This is a nasal concha also called a Turbinate or Turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans. the turbinates divide the nasal airway into 4 groove-like air passages, and are responsible for forcing inhaled air to flow in a steady, regular pattern around the largest possible surface area of nasal mucosa. As a ciliated mucous membrane with shallow blood supply, the nasal mucosa cleans and warms the inhaled air in preparation for the lungs. Turbinates are composed of pseudostratified columnar, ciliated respiratory epithelium with a thick, vascular, and erectile glandular tissue layer. The turbinates are located laterally in the nasal cavities, curling medially and downward into the nasal airway. Each pair is composed of one turbinate in either side of the nasal cavity, divided by the septum. The turbinates comprise most of the mucosal tissue of the nose and are required for functional respiration. The turbinates are enriched with airflow pressure and temperature-sensing nerve receptors, allowing for tremendous erectile capabilities of nasal congestion and decongestion, in response to the weather conditions and changing needs of the body.

 

L Nasal Bone

The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals. The nasal bones are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form the bridge of the nose. These bones serve as attachments for the cartilaginous tissues that are mostly responsible for the shape of the nose.         Source

 

L Lacrimal Bone

The lacrimal bone is the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, the size of the little fingernail and one of the smallest bones in the body. Spanning between the middle of each eye socket, each lacrimal is thin and scalelike and serves as support for the eye. The lacrimal has two surfaces: the nasal surface, which faces the nose, and the orbital surface, which faces the eye socket. The pair of lacrimal bones are two of the fourteen facial bones.       Source

 

R Nasal Bone

The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals. The nasal bones are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form the bridge of the nose. These bones serve as attachments for the cartilaginous tissues that are mostly responsible for the shape of the nose.      Source

 

L Maxillary Bone

The maxilla forms the upper jaw by fusing together two irregularly-shaped bones along the median palatine suture, located at the midline of the roof of the mouth. The maxillary bones on each side join in the middle at the intermaxillary suture, a fused line that is created by the union of the right and left ‘halves’ of the maxilla bone, running down the middle of the upper jaw. The bones help to form the upper jaw, sub-segments of the eye sockets, and the lower sections and sides of the nasal cavity. Additionally, they reduce the heaviness of the skull, help support the back teeth, and help to allow the voice to resonate. Each half of the fused bones contains four processes. These include the zygomatic, frontal, palatine, and alveolar processes of the maxilla. They also contain the infraorbital foramen, an opening in the bone just below the eye sockets, and the maxillary sinus, which helps to protect important facial structures during an accidental trauma. A severe blow to the face can fracture the maxilla, causing the displacement of teeth, loss of feeling in the lips or cheeks, and a retraction of the eyeball. Surgery is required to repair the break, as well as reset the bone and surrounding bones.       Source

 

Vomer Bone

The vomer is a singular bone that runs vertically within the nasal cavity, separating the left and right sides. When the skull is completely assembled, it can only be seen through the nasal orifice, anteriorly. This cranial structure runs caudally in an anterior and inferior direction, so that from a lateral point of view it looks like a diagonal rectangle (or a plough as it is more commonly known). The entire bone is ossified by means of the intramembranous pathway. The vomer is part of the nasal septum which follows the midline of the viscerocranium and creates the division between the two symmetrical sides of the nasal cavity. To be exact, the vomer forms the posterior inferior aspect of the septum in between the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone anterosuperiorly and the palatine bone posteroinferiorly. In addition, the maxilla links to the vomer anteriorly and inferiorly, the sphenoid bone posteriorly and the nasal cartilage anteriorly.        Source